The method used by Environment Canada was based on
A number of reviews of the toxic effects of PFASs have been published (Lau et al., 2007, Olsen et al., 2009, Kannan, 2011, Stahl et al., 2011 and DeWitt et al., 2012). Toxicological studies of mammalian species with PFOS and PFOA have suggested that peroxisome proliferation (Lau et al., 2007 and Kennedy et al., 2004), hepatotoxicity (3M, 2002), neurotoxicity (Harada et al., 2006), immunotoxicity (DeWitt et al., 2012), lipid AZ 12080282 (Wang et al., 2014), and developmental toxicity (Fuentes et al., 2007) may be associated with exposure to these chemicals.
Urban areas are recognized sources of perfluorinated compounds to the environment (Kim and Kannan, 2007). Charleston, SC is an urban area currently experiencing rapid growth as the 9th fastest growing metropolitan area in 2013 (U.S. Census, 2012). Monitoring surveys in Charleston Harbor during 1993–1994 demonstrated that sediments and fish were contaminated by mixtures of metals and organic compounds (Long et al., 1998). However, the status of contaminants such as PFASs is largely unknown, other than a preliminary study conducted in 2004 investigating PFASs in the dolphin food web (Houde et al., 2006). The aim of this study was to conduct a quantitative assessment of PFASs in sediment to identify spatial differences in contamination within the Charleston Harbor and facilitate a comparison with national and global sediment levels.