Our vision of IRA addresses the

This situation calls for a testing paradigm shift to expand from the traditional extensive standard testing battery to a more cost-effective and knowledge-driven approach (Hartung, 2009 and Hartung, 2010).•The traditional focus on qualitative and apical endpoints tested at relatively high doses cannot address the emerging issues in modern toxicology such as low dose extrapolation to assess toxicity of micro-pollutants and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the toxicity of mixtures to assess real life exposure scenarios.•Testing every chemical for every possible health and environmental effect is impractical and therefore prioritization is essential.