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Organophosphates (OPs) pesticides were already chosen by the WHO/IPCS (2001) to demonstrate the benefits of IRA, and a case study was developed by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and the US EPA, which presented a deterministic integrated environmental and health RA for OPs used in a typical farming GDC-0994 (Vermeire et al., 2003). This local scale assessment considered the risk for humans, wildlife and other environmental species resulting from both direct and indirect exposure at, and following, application of OPs. In the future, the application of the concept of the IRA within the frame of the PPP Regulation could be used in order to facilitate the better exploitation of the available (eco)toxicological data and reduce the number of required studies, as this is also a requirement of the PPP Regulation especially for studies conducted in vertebrate species. The vision of an actual integration of human and environmental MRAs has been suggested for pesticides with common MoAs in both humans and wildlife species, using OPs as an example. However, convincing examples for pesticide groups other than acetylcholine esterase inhibitors (i.e. OPs, carbamates) have not been brought forward, although potential activation and/or modulation of insect and vertebrate nicotinic receptors has been suggested for neonicotinoid pesticides (Li et al., 2011).