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You'll find numerous factors that might clarify these disconcordant success. In AGS cells, both the intracellular and secreted proportion of Progra nulin was individually analyzed. Because in ex vivo evaluation, both mTOR compartments can't be differentiated, the greater Progranulin amounts in antral mucosa might reflect the two elevated secretion and improvements in epithelial Progranulin expression. Second, ex vivo analysis is per formed on complex samples which includes epithelial and immune cells, whereas the in vitro model only mirrors the direct interaction of H. pylori to epithelial derived AGS cells. Third, analyzing the Progranulin expression immediately after 24 hrs represents the effects of an acute infec tion, whereas changes in mucosal biopsies could be con sidered as long run results of an chronic infection which are in the steady state.

Regardless of these limitations, information in the in vitro model make it possible for the conclusion that a down regulation of epithelial SLPI expression won't have an impact on the expression of Progranulin in AGS cells. Owing to your very low molecular bodyweight of granulins, no system is now suitable to analyze quantitatively the amounts with the Progranulin derived degradation products. Hence, no statement is usually manufactured concerning the equilibrium involving Pro granulin and granulins in gastric mucosa that might hypothetically be shifted towards granulins even the Progranulin amounts are upregulated. Furthermore, it is of note that SLPI will not be the only serine protease inhibitor expressed within the gastric mucosa. A short while ago, we recognized elevated alpha one protease inhibitor amounts within the mucosa of H.

pylori infected men and women. Because A1 PI can inhibit elastase to a equivalent extent as SLPI, a com pensatory mechanism is another likely explanation, though Progranulin is elevated, even though SLPI amounts are strongly diminished in relation to H. pylori infection. The observed association of induced Progranulin amounts in context to H. pylori infection and its linked gastritis does not allow practical conclusions whether or not the upregu lation has an energetic regulatory part for your inflammatory course of action, or it merely reflects the inflammatory situations in the underlying gastritis. Trying to keep in mind that Progranu lin acts as epithelial development aspect in other conditions, it's tempting to speculate that the upregulation of Progra nulin in H.

pylori connected gastritis is likely to be concerned in mucosal healing of gastric erosions ulcers induced by this infection. But at this moment, this remains purely specula tive because no functional data can be found. Conclusions Taken collectively data from in vitro and ex vivo evaluation, we can conclude the proposed regulatory link in between SLPI and Progranulin expression seems to be of no or low relevance in context for the H. pylori infec tion.