(-)-JQ1 A bubble generator plate was
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool (Solidworks, Dassault Systemes, Vélizy-Villacoublay, France) was employed for simulating hydrodynamic phenomena on the membrane surface. The simulation conditions were set via experimental results obtained from filtration test at same operating condition. Water was used as fluid at 25 °C and PVDF membrane was placed over the plate with 115 μm gap. Fluid inlet were set as pressure-inlet type (3 bar) with uniform volume flow rate (4.5 L/m), while outlet pressure was 2 bar.