(-)-JQ1 A bubble generator plate was

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool (Solidworks, Dassault Systemes, Vélizy-Villacoublay, France) was employed for simulating hydrodynamic phenomena on the membrane surface. The simulation conditions were set via experimental results obtained from filtration test at same operating condition. Water was '(-)-JQ1' used as fluid at 25 °C and PVDF membrane was placed over the plate with 115 μm gap. Fluid inlet were set as pressure-inlet type (3 bar) with uniform volume flow rate (4.5 L/m), while outlet pressure was 2 bar.