The way SerineGreatly improved Our Way Of Life Last Year

For
instance,motileciliaenable?uidmovementoverepithelialsurfaces,whileprimary(sensory)
cilia perform roles in cellular signalling. The molecular events FLT3 inhibitor molecular weight underlying cilia dynamics, and
particularlytheirdisassembly,arenotwellunderstood.Phosphataseandtensinhomologue
(PTEN)isanextensivelystudiedtumoursuppressor,thoughttoprimarilyactbyantagonizing
PI3-kinase signalling. Here we demonstrate that PTEN plays a significant part in multicilia
formation and cilia disassembly by controlling the phosphorylation of Dishevelled (DVL),
anotherciliogenesisregulator.DVLisacentralcomponentofWNTsignallingthatplaysarole
duringconvergentextensionmovements,whichweshowherearealsoregulatedbyPTEN.
Our studiesidentifyanovelproteinsubstrateforPTENthat couplesPTENto regulation of
ciliadynamicsandWNTsignalling,thusadvancingourunderstandingofpotentialunderlying
molecularetiologiesofPTEN-relatedpathologies.


1CenterforSystemsBiology,Lunenfeld-TanenbaumResearchInstitute,MountSinaiHospital,Toronto,Ontario,CanadaM5G1X5.2ProteinandNucleicAcid
ChemistryDivision,MedicalResearchCouncilLaboratoryofMolecularBiology,CambridgeBiomedicalCampus,CambridgeCB20QH,United kingdom. www.selleckchem.com/hmg-coa-reductase.html 3Departmentof
MolecularandMedicalPharmacology,UniversityofCalifornia,LosAngeles,California90095,USA.4DepartmentofCellandSystemsBiology,Universityof
Toronto,Toronto,Ontario,CanadaM5S3G5.5DepartmentofMolecularGenetics,UniversityofToronto,Toronto,Ontario,CanadaM5S1A8.Correspondence
andrequestsformaterialsshouldbeaddressedtoJ.L.W.(email:[email protected])ortoM.B.-R.(e-mail:[email protected]).
NATURE COMMUNICATIONS |6:8388|DOI: 10.

1038/ncomms9388 |www.nature.com/naturecommunications
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&2015MacmillanPublishersLimited.Allrightsreserved.



ARTICLE
NATURECOMMUNICATIONS|DOI:10.1038/ncomms9388
C
ilia and eukaryotic ?agella are structurally Serine similar ?uorescentbeadsontheembryosurface.PTENlossoffunction
organelles that play a pivotal function in eukaryotic biology. markedly affected bead motility by decreasing velocity and
Flagellaaremotileandbeatinapropeller-likepatternto increasing tortuosity (Fig. 1a,b; Supplementary Movies 1�C4).
drivethemovementofsinglecells,suchasspermatozoa.Motile Importantly, these effects were rescued by co-injection of a
cilia on the other hand, in either mono- or multiciliated cells haemagglutinin (HA)-tagged human PTEN construct, which is
(MCCs), display coordinated beating movements that are nottargetedbythemorpholino(Fig.

1a,b).
necessary to establish ?uid ?ow across epithelial surfaces, such
Fluid ?ow over Xenopus embryo skin is caused by epidermal
asrespiratorytractorbrainventricles.Anothertypeofciliaare MCCs,whichbearmotileciliaandlocalizeina��salt-and-pepper��
non-motileandplayimportantsensoryrolesandregulateseveral pattern along the surface of an embryo14,15. The structural
1,2
signal transduction pathways . Impairment of cilia function componentsofXenopusMCCsaresimilartothosefoundinthe
resultsinanumberofhumandiseases,calledciliopathies,suchas trachea and brain ventricles of mammals and are critical for
16
J