ETP-46464 In adults with BII behavioural

In adults with BII, behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments have received empirical support with five-controlled treatment trials conducted to date (Hellstr?m et?al., 1996, ?st et?al., 1991, ?st et?al., 1992, ?st et?al., 1984 and ?st et?al., 1989). As is evident, these trials were conducted solely by Öst and colleagues in Sweden and included the evaluation of a range of behavioural interventions including; massed or spaced exposure (e.g., confrontation of feared object or situation in a controlled manner, for a prolonged ETP-46464 of time), applied tension (e.g., brief tension of arms, legs and torso muscles, followed by release, not relaxation, of the muscles and implemented during exposure to BII stimuli), tension only (e.g., tension technique the same as that used in applied tension; however, patients are not exposed to BII stimuli), applied relaxation (e.g., progressive muscle relaxation in the context of exposure to BII stimuli, and a combination of applied tension and relaxation) (Ayala et?al., 2009, ?st et?al., 1984 and ?st et?al., 1989). In their systematic review of treatments for BII, Ayala et al. (2009) concluded parasites regardless of type of intervention (e.g., exposure, applied tension), treatment was equivalent, with 70–80% of patients responding. Despite expecations that applied tension might be associated with greater benefits given the unique physiological response associated with BII (Ayala et al., 2009), there was limited evidence for the additional effects of applied tension above and beyond exposure alone. In contrast, BII phobia has been neglected in the child and adolescent literature and no controlled studies have been conducted to date.