Specific exfoliation yield fifth column for graphene produced using graphite

Specific exfoliation yield (fifth column) for graphene produced using graphite rod electrodes in different IL and DES samples in acetonitrile as the solvent (1:1:30 'Cy7 by volume mainly for DESs when mixed with IL and ACN – the ILs on their own were only dissolved in ACN).DES/IL category (all DESs were mixed with BMPyrrBTA and ACN)Average current applied (A)Energy consumed per unit weight of rod (kJ/g)aYield of graphene (%)bGraphene yield per unit Cy7 NHS ester consumed (g/kJ)Colour of solution after exfoliationType I DESb0.1658.340.00.0480Pale yellowType II DES0.0313.10.00.0000BlackType III DES (ammonium-alcohol)0.0737.40.10.0001Deep yellow/brownishType III DES (phosphonium-alcohol)0.0949.528.80.0303Dark brownType III DES (ammonium-acid)0.0787.915.00.0190Light brownType III DES (glycerol-phosphonium)0.0717.228.40.0394Light yellowType III DES (NADES)0.0262.68.00.0308Pale yellowType III DES (ammonium-amide)0.0868.728.00.0322Dark brownType III DES (phosphonium-amide)0.0858.632.00.0372Dark brown to blackType IV DES0.1005.148.70.0963Pale yellowBMiMBF4 (no DES)c0.0636.416.00.0250OrangeBMPyrrBTA (no DES)c0.0414.217.30.0412ColourlessaEach graphite rod weighed 1 g prior to exfoliation. For the case of Type I and Type IV DESs, two graphite rods were used so both weights were considered in the energy and specific yield calculations.bYield of graphene was estimated by dividing the weight of the nanomaterial produced by the original weight of the graphite rod prior to exfoliation (for Types I and IV DESs, weights of two graphite rod electrodes were taken into account for each case, respectively).cThese ILs were dissolved in ACN at 1:30 volume ratios on a separate basis. No other components (DESs) were used.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV