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Sea stretches of commercial ports are often characterized by high levels of pollution in sediments, low oxygen concentrations during the water column, and lower biodiversity of benthic communities [1] that could result in the lessen of fauna within their seabed [2].

Even further reasons of impact on harbor sea stretches normally come from higher concentrations of natural matter on account of eutrophication, time variability of sediment deposition, allochthonous inputs, and reduced hydrodynamism [3, 4]. These reasons show that the activities carried out in ports result in vital conditions in the environments, as well as organisms build several approaches to adapt to your alterations of water and sediments parameters [5]. A crucial characteristic of harbor web-sites is the elimination of natural matter. Consumption capacity of organic matter is mainly as a consequence of biotic uptake and degradation performed by microorganisms.

This procedure is usually insufficient to sustain the equilibrium of ecosystems; in many situations, the presence of detrital natural matter (which increases anoxic disorders), heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, [6]), and also other toxic compounds plays also a critical purpose in negatively impacting the seabed biocenosis [7, 8].

Although the origin and concentration of pollutants in seabed harbor sediments is usually distinct, quite a few studies show that, in many situations, pollution is mostly due to the presence of hydrocarbons, heavy metals [9], and organic matter. Achievable strategies for hindering the problem of contaminated aquatic sediments have been widely talked about [10]. Polluted nextseabed sediments is usually sanitised by means of in situ actions, which usually need an correct understanding with the local biocenosis [11]. Also, it had been demonstrated that bacterial communities have fantastic possible for being utilized as sensitive indicators of contamination in aquatic sediments [12].

New and precise procedures to study the composition of microbial communities in harbor seabed sediments are required for these reasons. Distinctions in quantity and distribution of bacteria, in this kind of a significant region as a harbor, could be related to pollutant distribution and general sediment state. Currently, Leghorn's Harbor is one of the most significant ports within the Mediterranean Sea, linked with a lot more than 300 ports throughout the world.