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This took into consideration the economic value derived from the various uses of the wetlands, the costs involved in the management, and the fact that the benefits ofDoxylamine Succinate wetlands can be sustained by good management interventions. This is in line with the study by Karanja et al. [4], selleck compound which estimated the net total economic value of wetlands in Pallisa District at US$ 10,861 per hectare per year, and Maclean et al. [16], which estimated benefits from Lake Bunyonyi in the range of US$ 11,200 to US$ 24,000 per hectare per year.Table 15Summary of total economic contribution of wetlands in three agro-ecological zones of Uganda.4. Discussion4.1. The Economic Values of Wetlands 4.1.1. Fish Availability and Breeding/Spawning Results show that wetlands were valued as major breeding grounds for fish.

Wetlands are important for the reproduction of certain fish species like Protopterus, Clarias, Schilbe, Labeo, Alestes spp., and Oreochromis niloticus [17]. They are also important habitats for a number of fish species including Clarias spp., mudfish, Protopterus spp., and various Haplochromis spp. In addition to serving as breeding grounds, the contribution of wetlands through provision of fish is most selleckchem SN-38significant for species that have respiratory systems that are adapted to seasonal flooding and can withstand reduced water levels in wetland areas such as Clarias spp. [18]. However, in some of the pilot areas, the spawning grounds for fish species that reproduce in wetlands are under threat as result of the ever-progressing encroachment.

This justifies the need to protect wetlands for increased fisheries resources, given the fact that most fishes breed in shallow waters along wetland areas, as noted by WMD et al. [5].Results from this study further indicate the value of wetlands through fish catch as food and source of proteins and employment to the fishing communities. During the focus group discussions, it was noted that Clarias sp. (catfish) are commonly harvested from wetland areas in the Kyoga plains and Southwestern farmlands agroecological zone, and provide a cheap source of animal protein and are one of the main commercial activities during the dry season when water levels of wetlands reduce, providing easy harvesting. The findings from this study indicate that the contribution of wetlands to food security through provision of fish is significant, and this is supported by other findings that in Uganda fish provides up to 50% of all animal protein [19].

The results are supported by other studies such as Akwetaireho [20], in which wetlands support livelihoods of people engaged in fishing such as fishers, boat owners, crew, and employees in fish processing factories. Wetlands are thus of importance to socioeconomic development from the fisheries sector, whose contribution in 2009 was estimated at about 2.8% of Uganda's national GDP [21].