The diagnostics and control instrumentations included K

CFD models have been demonstrated as a powerful and practical tool to study and optimize the design of APD668 storage systems [15]. Compared to experiments and ROMs, they can simulate detailed spatiotemporal dynamics of the battery systems, such as the spatial distribution and the temporal dynamics of temperature [11], [21], [35] and [36], which cannot be captured by ROMs and are difficult or even impossible to measure experimentally. This work developed a CFD model using the ANSYS Fluent 15.0 package to aid the analysis of the experimental data. Similar to the CFD model developed in [16], the model treated the thermal management problem as a 2D conjugate heat transfer problem, with the rates of heat release dependent on cell internal resistances. The model considered a fluid zone and solid zone to model the cooling air and batteries, respectively. Uniform quadrilateral meshing method was applied to both the liquid and solid zones. The size of the grids was chosen in such a way that the resultant temperatures were independent of the grid size. Inflation option was used to model the flow boundary layers and to keep the wall y+ number within an acceptable range. The y+ number, defined below in Eq. (1) was maintained at around 1.0 in mesophytic leaves work as required by the enhancement wall treatment:equation(1)y+≡yντwρf