Culture condition such as carbon

Kinetics of biofilm development in different basal media with 3μM Fe(II) ...
Fig. 6.
Kinetics of biofilm development in different basal media with 3 μM Fe(II) evaluated by two methods: (a) CV assay and b. image capturing and 3D-pattern development (t0 = 0 h, t1 = 7 h, t2 = 31 h and t3 = 55 h).
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According to the results in Fig. 6, following time evolution (t1–t3), the P. veronii 2E biofilm in presence of Fe(II) developed in thickness once the surface was totally covered. A more structured biofilm was obtained under these experimental conditions, as reported by other Pseudomonas. As found by Glick et al. [21] Fe-limiting conditions would be the responsible of rhamnolipid synthesis and twitching motility stimulation leading to a flat biofilm for P. aeruginosa, in Rucaparib with a structured biofilm obtained when Fe was present.
4. Conclusions
1. Introduction
2,3 Butanediol (2,3-BD), a precursor of butadiene is widely used in the rubber industry. It is a versatile chemical and can be used as a platform compound for industrial purposes [1] and [2]. Additionally, 2,3-BD has potential applications in the manufacture of printing inks, perfumes, fumigants, moistening, softening agents, explosives, plasticizers, food and pharmaceuticals [2], [3] and [4]. Also, it has a low freezing point of −60 °C which makes it a promising candidate for commercial use as an antifreeze agent [4]. As crude oil reserves have become increasingly scarce, bio-refineries that integrate biomass conversion processes to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from renewable resources are currently at various stages of development [3] and [5].