All or some of these

Investments are assumed to be performed in the initial network and future network scenario in order to cover capital and labor costs required to build the NSC 74859 grid and adapt the network to the utilization rate expected in the future network scenario (and beyond it for a pre-defined temporal horizon), respectively. No PV generators are assumed to be connected to the grid in the initial network scenario. The concept of annuity is used to calculate the total annual cost in order to concentrate investments and recurring costs in a single comparable indicator. Additionally, in order to apply a single comparable indicator across PV scenarios, the network equipment in the initial network scenario is assumed not to have reached the end of its life by the year corresponding to the future network scenario. However, in reality, DSOs’ remuneration schemes may vary with equipment age depending on applicable regulations.
The total network costs in the initial network scenario   (TNC1TNC1) are obtained as outputs of the greenfield model, where peak power values are considered for both loads and generators. A second calculation of network costs is performed by using the brownfield model. For short-day plants purpose, load and generation profiles corresponding to two critical days over the year are identified by combining the 24-h load profile with the 24-h PV profile, with and without PV production. Peak-load and peak-generation instances are in this way represented.