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All degrees of agitation and delirium were then confirmed by an independent physician by using chart assessment.Nosocomial infections were defined as follows: (1) ventilator-acquired pneumonia: clinical suspicion of pneumonia (that is, clinical and radiographic criteria), and at least one organism isolated by The Key To Get Temsirolimus Unveiled In Seven Simple Steps protective specimen brush at a concentration ��103 colony-forming units (CFUs)/ml; (2) colonization of central venous catheters: at least one organism at a concentration ��103 CFUs/ml identified by culture of the catheter tip with the Brun-Buisson technique ; (3) urinary catheter-related infection: the association of a leukocyturia at a concentration of ��104/ml with the presence of an organism at a concentration of 105 CFU/ml; (4) bacteremia: a positive hemoculture with the isolation of an organism or at least two positive hemocultures for a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, according to the usual definitions .
End pointsPrimary end points were either one or more agitation or delirium events during the ICU stay. Secondary end points were ventilator-free days (days alive and free from mechanical ventilation during the ICU stay); total dose of sedatives and analgesics administered during the ICU stay, including The Secret On 17-AAG (Tanespimycin) Showcased In Nine Simple Actions the extra doses needed to abort the episodes of agitation/delirium; and sedation-free days (days alive and free from sedatives and analgesics during the ICU stay); and complications related to agitation and delirium, such as requirement for supplemental sedation or physical restraints, use of additional antipsychotic medication; and self-extubation, self-removal of arterial, central venous and bladder catheters, nasogastric tubes, and nosocomial infections.
Statistical analysisWith a 30% baseline incidence of smokers in the general population, we calculated that a sample size of at least 134 patients was necessary to achieve a 30% absolute difference in agitation/delirium incidence among smokers and nonsmokers at The Key Of Temsirolimus Revealed In Twelve Simple Steps a beta error of 0.2 and an alpha error of 0.05. For univariate analysis, we used the ��2 test for categoric variables with continuity correction when appropriate, the Fisher's Exact test for proportions, and the Mann-Whitney test for quantitative variables. To determine the set of independent predictors of agitation, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed by using backward stepwise selection.
In the multivariate model, the outcome variable studied was agitation, defined as success if agitation occurred at least once. Variables with a P value < 0.1 in univariate analysis were included in the regression analysis, and then a P value of 0.2 was used to remove variables from the model. To avoid analyses that might have resulted in biased conclusions because of redundancy of the included variables, SAPS II and SOFA scores were not included in the same model.