The main objective of the study
AcknowledgmentsWe thank Carolyn Davidson, Easan Drury, and Scott Robinson for valuable feedback and insights. This work was funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Subcontract # XGG-3-23326-01). VR acknowledges support from the Elspeth Rostow Memorial Fellowship. All remaining errors are ours alone.
Appendix A. Supplementary dataThe following is the supplementary data related to this P005091 article:
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Biodiesel; Flamboyant pods; Hevea brasiliensis oil; Heterogeneous carbon catalyst; Taguchi method; Transesterification
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) mainly grows in the tropical region and cultivated wildly for use of its latex as source of natural rubber. The cultivation of rubber tree increased remarkably due to excessive demand of latex from the grown rubber industries. Rubber seed is obtained as a notable by-product of rubber tree, and rich source of oil with yield of 40–50% . However, such large volume of feed is still underutilised. India is one among the top ten countries in the world producing rubber seeds and Kerala is leading rubber plantation state of India. Only in India 2 lakhs hectares of land was planted with rubber trees which produces 160 kg of rubber seed per hectare of the plantation. In year 2011 it was estimated that 30,000 tons per annum of rubber seeds are available in India which can yield the oil up to 5000 tons per annum .