For pathway pairs with no The p value of the difference in Zf values was calculated using the standard normal distribution

While tricky, some lineage since certain residues motifs are recognizable. The acanthopterygii course II beta sequences Calcitriol IL-2 contain lineage precise residues this sort of as the L215, M223, I242, L245, S248, F252, R257, R260 aas motif in the COOH sellekchem conclude. In contrast to teleosts, shark appears to be to have chosen a distinct paralogue as its big MHC course II locus currently being much more comparable to the tetrapod MHC class II molecules than to the classical teleost class II. The salmonid DBA DCA and DDA sequences cluster closer to the tetrapod shark sequences and could also be a version of this paralogue. Based on the phylogenetic clustering, the salmonid DBA and DCA genes most likely originated from the total genome duplication event that happened in salmonids 60 Mya, comparable to the class I IA and IB region duplication. DDA and DAA may possibly be remnants of two older full genome duplication activities possibly analogous to the human Chromosome 1, six, 9, 19 paralogues. The human TIPRL homolog is situated on chromosome 1q23. two, a location that also encompasses MHC paralogous genes such as CD1 and COL11A1 although the human homologs of NRGN, TECTA and TBCEL all reside on chromosome 11.

If the salmon TIPRL and course II genes originate from the primordial human chro mosome 1 continues to be to be founded. Other teleost genomes present some synteny to the mole cules encoded on the Atlanitc salmon BAC clone. A tblastn search towards Ensembl genomic databases of tetraodon, stickleback, medaka and zebrafish showed a tight linkage amongst the TBCEL and TECTA genes in all species except tetraodon. Stickleback and medaka also harbour a TIPRL homolog on the identical chro mosome as TBCEL and TECTA, even though at a length of around 12 Mb and 17 Mb absent respectively. The zebrafish NRGN homolog is found on the very same chromo some as TBCEL and TECTA somewhere around 12 Mb in dis tance. Homologs to the Sasa DBB and Sasa DBA genes have been not observed in any other offered teleost genomes. In summary, the Sasa DBB and Sasa DBA genes are most probable a duplication of a primordial class II region that has been translocated into the NRGN TIPRL TBCEL TECTA location. The duplication appears to be to be salmon certain while additional teleost genome sequences may establish us improper. Summary In this review we explain a novel MHC course II region in Atlantic salmon consisting of two carefully connected MHC class II alpha and beta loci denoted Sasa DBA and Sasa DBB respectively. The genes are not linked to the classical class II loci and have lower sequence id to classical sequences. The location displays some conserved synteny towards other described teleost genomic regions. Two more divergent course II alpha sequences ended up also identified and symbolize two added salmonid course II alpha loci. Expression styles and absence of polymorphism make these genes non classical course II analogues indicat ing that these molecules might have a distinctive and nevertheless uni dentified functionality in salmonids.