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5 He briefly practiced in Micanopy, Florida (south of Gainesville), and selleck bio it was from there that he authored content articles on ��Plaster and its [Dental] Manipulations.�� When awaiting publication of his four-part series inside the Southern Dental Examiner in 1862,6 Bean moved to Atlanta, Georgia, to be closer to your South's only dental supply household, Brown & Hape, and to enjoy the stability of transactions in Georgia currency or in gold-and-silver coin.7,8 Figure 1 James Baxter Bean pictured after the American Civil War, before his death in 1870. (Photo courtesy of the National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC.) By the summer of 1864, the South's leadership had vacillated on a Confederate Army proposal to invade and split the North,9 and Sherman, taking the initiative, was poised to thrust through the heart of Georgia, to divide the Confederacy by marching to the sea.
In vogue at the time, management Nutlin of fractures of the jaws called for manual reduction and stabilization by means of a gutta-percha splint,4,10,11,12 depicted well, by example, in an 1864 report of Watkins Burton,13 a dentist assigned to Jackson Hospital, Richmond, Virginia. A Confederate soldier of the 53rd Georgia Regiment, James Hutchinson, had suffered a fracture of the left maxilla between the first and second premolars. Burton wrote: ��After forcing the fracture into position, gutta-percha softened in warm water was pressed on the teeth [including] the fractured portion, and the jaws closed in occlusion. The impression was then carefully removed and placed in cold water�� to harden.
��The material [after reinsertion],�� Burton added, ��afforded a pleasant rest towards the jaw [during healing], and left an opening through which food might be received, and at the same time not be affected by the secretions new product of the mouth, or by discharges from the wound.�� In vogue also, because of the need for practicality, were splints made of pasteboard softened with vinegar.14 Circumferential dressings, such as the Barton or the Hamilton bandage, added a modicum of stability.15,16 It had been in this setting in June of 1864, during visits to hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia, that Edward N. Covey, the Medical Inspector of the Confederate Army, learned of James Baxter Bean and his novel approach, initiated first in 1863, for management of fractures of the jaws.
Covey described Bean's approach in 1866, some 10 months after cessation of the war, within the inaugural issue of the Richmond Medical Journal: Bean first took ��wax impressions of the uninjured jaw and separately each fragment of the broken jaw, as soon after the injury as the condition of the parts permitted.�� From these impressions, Bean ��then produced casts of plaster of Paris, giving as perfect representations of the teeth as possible.�� ��The plaster models were next antagonized in their normal [occlusal] position, in an articulator�� (Fig. 2). Figure 2 An illustration of the articulator developed and utilized by Bean.