As displayed in Fig nbsp in upwind conditions up to

As displayed in Fig. 10, in upwind conditions, up to a true wind angle of 50°, the static flight appears to be more efficient than the dynamic flight which papain then better for higher true wind angles. Up to 60°, the best trajectory orientations given by Dadd [16] and the present algorithm are parallel to the wind window edge, near 90° in orientation as displayed in Fig. 12. This corresponds to almost vertical trajectories tangent to the wind window edge, but slightly shifted. Indeed, the accessible wind window limit is defined by Equation (12) replacing the lift to drag angle ε by (ε + δε), δε being equal to 0.01 rad. It allows the algorithm to avoid problems due to local minima. On the other hand, Naaijen [1] and [15] orientation parameter always stays at 0° since his optimization strategy only considers horizontal trajectories. Furthermore, vertical trajectories have higher elevation than horizontal ones. Therefore in upwind conditions, best trajectories given by Dadd [16] and the present algorithm are more elevated than ribosomes of Naaijen et al. [1] and [15].