The olive hedgerow system has

Tree height was measured annually from 2008 to 2011 on 3 trees per treatment to establish when tree crowns achieved ABT-046 target height (i.e., 2.5 m) optimal for the harvesting machine. Hedgerow structure was described in detail on 3 trees per row spacing in both orientations immediately after harvest in 2012 and 2013. For this, height of top and bottom foliage was measured in 3 positions per tree near the trunk and at 0.5 m on each side. Hedgerow width was measured at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m height at 3 positions on the same trees. Hedgerow external surface area and canopy volume were calculated for rectangular shapes. Horizontal porosity was estimated by passage of a insulin light beam horizontally through each hedgerow onto a vertical white panel with a hand-held laser (maximum output power 300 mW; wavelength 532 nm ± 10) held normal to the hedgerow. Sample size was 150 replicates taken randomly at mid-canopy height (1.0–1.7 m) in each hedgerow. Horizontal porosity (%) was estimated as the proportion of laser points penetrating the hedgerow directly onto a white panel at the measuring height.