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The main aim of prenatal testing would be the diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies, such as trisomy 21 (T21, Down syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome), kinase inhibitor Celecoxib and trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), likewise as aneuploidies related to the X and Y chromosomes . Although the majority of fetuses with aneuploidy lead to termination through the growth on the fetus, T21 has the highest survival fee, which influences 1 in 800 births . Therefore, the prenatal detection of T21 is regarded as the most common and crucial factor of prenatal genetic testing. Prenatal testing of T21 falls into 'screening' and 'diagnosis' class. Present prenatal screening exams have greatly improved through the use of a combination of maternal serum markers and fetal sonographic markers such as nuchal translucency [3-6].
The top doing screening tests can recognize greater than 90% of T21 situations, by using a 5% rate of false positives. On the other hand, positive screening success call for confirmation with diagnostic testing, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS). The accuracy of those diagnostic methods is estimated to be 98% to 99% DOCK10 . Nonetheless, each sampling procedures are invasive, and therefore are associated with major dangers for the fetus and mom, together with the possible reduction of a healthier fetus [7,8]. For this reason invasive prenatal diagnosis exams are at the moment preformed only in high-risk pregnancies or in pregnancies with improved maternal age and/or family members background of acquiring a little one with an inherited disorder. Consequently, building a trustworthy approach for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) for fetal T21 is of essential relevance in prenatal care.
To perform NIPD, a source meanwhile of fetal genetic materials that could be sampled without harm towards the fetus will be necessary. Since the 1970s, researchers have isolated intact fetal cells in maternal circulation . On the other hand, fetal cells in maternal blood are rare in amount and are inclined to remain inside the mother's entire body for many years . Therefore, this strategy is unsuitable for NIPD . In 1997, Lo et al.  found the existence of cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) in maternal circulation. Compared to fetal cells, cff-DNA is comparatively more abundant in maternal blood and thus is thought to be a promising new materials for NIPD. It constitutes around 10% of your total DNA in maternal plasma and it is rapidly cleared from maternal blood, inside of two hours of delivery [13,14].
In addition, it has not long ago been identified the complete fetal genome, from the kind of cff-DNA, is existing in maternal blood . Hence, cff-DNA has become the target of exploration for that growth of NIPD. At present, the clinical possible of cff-DNA has become demonstrated. Specifically, the determination of fetal intercourse and fetal Rhesus D standing using cff-DNA is already utilized as regimen tests in Denmark, Sweden, along with the Netherlands [16-18].