The presence of woolly rhinoceros in the cold climate
Regarding the interesting disparity between the MCR and MOTR temperature estimates for unit 5d, comparison with literature data (Fig. 6) reveals that the unit 5d coleopteran temperature-estimate envelopes are similar to Lynford, Whitemoor Haye, Baston and Stanwick, as well as facies association Bb at Latton, but not to Upton Warren or facies association Ba at Latton. Consequently, according to this comparison, unit 5d could have been deposited early in MIS 3, or late in MIS 3. As noted in Fig. 6 the percentage overlap of Daminozide forming the coleopteran temperature reconstructions for unit 5d is 87.5%. A possible reason for this partial overlap could be the rapidly changing climate characteristic of MIS 3, thereby introducing a mixture of cooler and warmer taxa in the same deposit, such as at Upton Warren and Lynford. This lack of agreement also may be explicable by the fact that the ostracod sample was taken from a higher level (about 40 cm) in the Channel D sediments than the coleopteran sample, and separated from it by a lateral distance of a few metres, thus inferring that: (i) the infilling of channel D was episodic and possibly spanning more than one MIS 3 climatic episode; or (ii) that the more basal coleopteran sample is reflecting reworking of sediments from the underlying unit 5c, which contains evidence of cryogenic deformation in the form of ice-wedge casts (truncated by channel D; unpublished data) and has yielded a plant macrofossil assemblage indicative of cold conditions (see Section 3.1.2). Marked episodic deposition is not apparent from the sedimentology, but discontinuities in such settings can be obscure (e.g. Keen et al., 1999). Neither are there any noticeable climatic alternations in the pollen profile, but as discussed above there is the problem of reworking of pollen, amongst other factors, within fluvial environments so that pollen spectra may not actually be representing the climatic conditions during sediment accumulation.