History Of Science In India Pdf Download
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Indigo was used as a dye in India, which was also a major center for its production and processing. The Indigofera tinctoria variety of Indigo was domesticated in India. Indigo, used as a dye, made its way to the Greeks and the Romans via various trade routes, and was valued as a luxury product. The cashmere wool fiber, also known as pashm or pashmina, was used in the handmade shawls of Kashmir. The woolen shawls from Kashmir region find written mention between 3rd century BCE and the 11th century CE. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Gupta dynasty, and the earliest reference to candied sugar comes from India. Jute was also cultivated in India. Muslin was named after the city where Europeans first encountered it, Mosul, in what is now Iraq, but the fabric actually originated from Dhaka in what is now Bangladesh. In the 9th century, an Arab merchant named Sulaiman makes note of the material's origin in Bengal (known as Ruhml in Arabic).. ^ a b Encyclopdia Britannica (2008), Kashmir shawl. However, according to India's science and technology minister, Kapil Sibal, India is lagging in science and technology compared to developed countries. India has only 140 researchers per 1,000,000 population, compared to 4,651 in the United States. India invested US$3.7 billion in science and technology in 20022003. For comparison, China invested about four times more than India, while the United States invested approximately 75 times more than India on science and technology. The highest-ranked Indian university for engineering and technology in 2014 was the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay at number 16; natural science ranks lower. One study argued that Indian science did not suffer from lack of funds but from unethical practices, the urge to make illegal money, immense misuse of power, frivolous publications and patents, faulty promotion policies, victimisation for speaking against wrong or corrupt practices in the management, sycophancy, and brain drain.. 29 August 2006. Guilmartin, Jr. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Partington, James Riddick & Hall, Bert S. This article is about modern science in India. India's Mars Orbiter Mission successfully entered Mars' orbit Wednesday morning, becoming the first nation to arrive on its first attempt and the first Asian country to reach the Red Planet. MSNBC (2008), "Dig uncovers ancient roots of dentistry". Thrusfield, Michael (2007), Veterinary Epidemiology, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 1-4051-5627-9. In 1500, Nilakantha Somayaji of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics, in his Tantrasangraha, revised Aryabhata's elliptical model for the planets Mercury and Venus.