Social Comparison Theory Festinger Pdf Download
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However, in such a case wherein there are no available materials to measure these skills, the person will then just simply base his evaluations by subjectively comparing himself with others. Even for people with low self-esteem, these downward social comparisons do improve their negative mood and allow them to feel hope and motivation for their future. (manuscript) "Yin and Yang Theory of Competition: Social Comparison and Evaluation Apprehension Reciprocally Drive Competitive Motivation". Initial framework. ^ Burleigh T. Frog Pond Effect . The proxy model anticipates the success of something that is unfamiliar. ^ Kruglanski, A.
1 (1): 5461. Main article: Self-verification. Social comparison processes: Theoretical and empirical perspectives: 86109. However, active downward comparison happens when the person compares himself to others by demeaning or causing harm to others. Self-evaluation maintenance model.
403 Forbidden . Festinger goes on to hypothesize that the cessation of comparison with others is accompanied by hostility or derogation to the extent that continued comparison with those persons implies unpleasant consequences (Hypothesis VI). The majority of women have a daily opportunity to make upward comparison by measuring themselves against some form of societal ideal. 3 (3): 211227. Unlike for self-evaluation goals, people engaging in social comparison with the goal of self-enhancement may not seek out a target that is similar to themselves. Current Directions in Psychological Science. "Similarity in the influence process: The belief-value distinction".
"Rankings, standards, and competition: Task vs. 38 (1): 299337. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Passive downward comparison happens when a person takes into consideration the previous condition in making comparison; for example, a low performing student comparing himself to a worse off student. Three-selves model.