Conversores Digital Analogico Pdf Download

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Conversores Digital Analogico Pdf Download

 

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An..8-bit..thermometer..DAC..would..have..255..segments,..and..a..16-bit..thermometer..DAC..would..have..65,535..segments...These.normally.take.the.digital.output.of.a.compatible.CD.player.or.dedicated.transport.(which.is.basically.a.CD.player.with.no.internal.DAC).and.convert.the.signal.into.an.analog.line-level.output.that.can.then.be.fed.into.an.amplifier.to.drive.speakers..The...digital...stream...is...then...divided...into...network...packets...where...it...may...be...sent...along...with...other...digital...data,...not...necessarily...audio....An..unusual..application..of..digital-to-analog..conversion..was..the..whiffletree..electromechanical..digital-to-analog..converter..linkage..in..the..IBM..Selectric..typewriter.[1]...Holberg,.CMOS.Analog.Circuit.Design..A.conventional.practical.DAC.converts.the.numbers.into.a.piecewise.constant.function.made.up.of.a.sequence.of.rectangular.functions.that.is.modeled.with.the.zero-order.hold..

 

The.binary-weighted.DAC,.which.contains.individual.electrical.components.for.each.bit.of.the.DAC.connected.to.a.summing.point..In...a...practical...DAC,...a...filter...or...the...finite...bandwidth...of...the...device...smooths...out...the...step...response...into...a...continuous...curve....The.DAC.is.driven.with.a.pulse-density.modulated.signal,.created.with.the.use.of.a.low-pass.filter,.step.nonlinearity.(the.actual.1-bit.DAC),.and.negative.feedback.loop,.in.a.technique.called.delta-sigma.modulation..Phillip.E..These..two..applications..use..DACs..at..opposite..ends..of..the..speed/resolution..trade-off...Higher...oversampling...rates...can...relax...the...specifications...of...the...output...low-pass...filter...and...enable...further...suppression...of...quantization...noise....Video[edit]....Linear..PCM..audio..sampling..usually..works..on..the..basis..of..each..bit..of..resolution..being..equivalent..to..6..decibels..of..amplitude..(a..2x..increase..in..volume..or..precision)...Resolution.determines.color.depth.in.video.applications.and.audio.bit.depth.in.audio.applications..

 

Ndjountche.Tertulien,."CMOS.Analog.Integrated.Circuits:.High-Speed.and.Power-Efficient.Design"..Monotonicity..The..ability..of..a..DAC's..analog..output..to..move..only..in..the..direction..that..the..digital..input..moves..(i.e.,..if..the..input..increases,..the..output..doesn't..dip..before..asserting..the..correct..output.)..This..characteristic..is..very..important..for..DACs..used..as..a..low..frequency..signal..source..or..as..a..digitally..programmable..trim..element...The..DAC..is..usually..integrated..with..some..memory..(RAM),..which..contains..conversion..tables..for..gamma..correction,..contrast..and..brightness,..to..make..a..device..called..a..RAMDAC...Gain..Offset..Noise..is..ultimately..limited..by..the..thermal..noise..generated..by..passive..components..such..as..resistors...This..is..equivalent..to..a..zero-order..hold..operation..and..has..an..effect..on..the..frequency..response..of..the..reconstructed..signal...The...pulse-width...modulator,...the...simplest...DAC...type....Static...performance:...Differential...nonlinearity...(DNL)...shows...how...much...two...adjacent...code...analog...values...deviate...from...the...ideal...1LSB...step.[3]...Integral...nonlinearity...(INL)...shows...how...much...the...DAC...transfer...characteristic...deviates...from...an...ideal...one.........However,...many...monotonic...converters...may...have...a...maximum...DNL...greater...than...1...LSB....ISBN..0-7803-1045-4...