The history of the emergence of wooden monuments Norwegian
The second half of the XIX century. European culture is characterized by a surge of interest in the construction of the tree, which is especially clearly demonstrated the pavilions of various countries in the world exhibitions. The reason was primarily in the revival of people's tradition of serving signs of national identity. The specific form of the roof Gothic Norwegian Swedish pavilion at the Paris Exposition of 1867 was one of the first signs of an incipient movement. Each country had its own rationale for a return to the past, but it has given rise to similar trends in architecture, including wooden Noah. Objects of study and imitation steel Swiss Chalet, Russian huts, built in Scandinavian and American shingle style, half-timbered German, and so on. E., As a result of vzaimovli- yany breed in Europe a lot of wooden buildings. Interest in the wooden architecture of Norway manifested in Germany as early as the middle of the XIX century., When the Dresden artist Jan Christian Dahl bought for the Prussian King Friedrich Wil- helm IV in the province of Valdres wooden church constructions of "becoming" from the village of Vang in southern Norway. The design of "becoming" (another name - masted style) originated in the Scandinavian architecture in the Middle Ages, presumably over a sample of the Royal Viking Hall. It is based on the use of vertical poles and planks set and closely based on the horizontal beams. Basilica storage we like "becoming" had stepped silhouette, with a central nave high overlap gable roof, which was based on the rafters, for greater strength supported beams with braces in the form of St. Andrew's cross. Designed for disassembly, the church of the village Wang was transferred to Germany and reconstructed in the village Bryukenberg in Silesia (modern ny Karpacz Poland) in 1841-1843. Wooden ornaments in the form of a dragon's head, typical of medieval wooden churches tions, have proliferated in the architecture of Norway late XIX - early XX century. and gave the name of the new style.
Architect HH Munthe (collab. With Sverre Olsen and P.). 1891 The earliest building in the Norwegian "dragon style" not only in East Prussia, but in the whole of Germany, appeared in Romintenskoy Forest. The complex of wooden hunting lodge, the remains of which are in Kaliningrad, was built in 1891 at the personal request of the German Kaiser Wilhelm II, a passionate hunter, tsenivshego local forest for the abundance of game. A little later, near the hunting lodge any temple and houses for workers forest. Kaiser Wilhelm II called travelers: only three months a year he spent in Berlin and Potsdam, in the rest tion time travel not only in Europe, but visited and Palestine, the Mediterranean islands, Northern Africa. For 26 years, from 1889 to 1914, he made an annual multi-month voyages to the northern European countries, which in the late XIX - early XX century. were ranked, in addition to the Scandinavian countries, as Finland and Russia. But the object of constant interest Wilhelm II was Norway, which at that time on me shirilos national-romantic movement. The then culture of the country relied heavily on ancient historical heritage of the legendary Viking, Norse revered for their ancestors. Wilhelm II wrote in his memoirs that he was also "associated with these people magic thread", and thought the Vikings old ancestors of the Germans. Annual visits to the Kaiser Norway contributed to the organization of tourist routes in this distant land, awakened interest in all of Germany to its harsh nature and scenic fjords, to the heroic, past the Vikings, ancient legends and sagas, was translated into German at the beginning of XX century. In 1910 in Germany was published 24 volumes compiled by the poet Eugenio Diderih- catfish, including samples of Norwegian poetry and prose, in Vol. H. "Ed" and many of the saga. Addiction German monarch to the northern culture af- a contradiction "vilgelminovskoy" of the late XIX - beginning of XX century eg. with its desire for progress and attempts total break with the past and at the same inclination to the legendary ancient, deep folk roots.