Water Treatment Fundamentals
Enhancing the quality of water involves disinfection plus purification of untreated surface and ground water.
Community Level. A public/private water treatment facility aims to produce water safe to drink and pleasant to taste, while ensuring that there is certainly enough water to deliver the requirements of the city.
Raw, untreated water originates from an underground aquifer (via wells) or surface streams as being a river or lake. It flows or perhaps is pumped to a rehab facility. The minute it's there, the lake is treated beforehand to take away debris - like leaves and silt. This experiences a few treatment processes, which include disinfection and filtration using chemicals or physical processes, eliminating microorganisms that create diseases. As soon as the treatment is completed, water flows out through a system of pumps and pipes, which is often referred to as distribution system.
There is a slight difference of water treatment process at various places, based on the technology from the plant and water must be processed, however the fundamental principles are typically precisely the same.
Coagulation / Flocculation. On the coagulation state, liquid aluminium sulfate or alum, and at times polymer, is positioned in untreated/raw water. This mixture causes tiny dirt particles in water being fastened together or coagulated. Then, collections of dirt particles join together to make bigger, heavier particles - known as flocs - that happen to be easily removed through filtration/settling.
Sedimentation. When water and floc particles have the treatment process, they flow into sedimentation basins where water moves slowly, letting heavy floc particles dip to the bottom. Floc collected around the lowermost the main basin is called sludge. This goes through pipes to arrive at the drying lagoons. The sedimentation state is not included in Direct Filtration and so, the floc is taken off through filtration.
Filtration. Water experiences a filter designed to remove water particles. Filters contain layers of gravel and sand, as well as in other cases, crushed anthracite. Filtration gathers the suspended water impurities and enhances the efficacy of disinfection. Filters are cleaned often by using backwashing.
Disinfection. Before water goes into the distribution system, it is disinfected to be sure that bacteria that produces diseases, parasites and viruses is eliminated. Chlorine is used because it a great in disinfecting and residual concentration to guard from possible biological contamination present in the device of water distribution.
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